Papua New Guinea is a country with a small population which is located in the continent/region of Oceania. Washington DC. One major project conducted through the PNG Department for Community Development suggested that other pathways to sustainable development should be considered. The referendum question was a choice between greater autonomy within Papua New Guinea and full independence for Bougainville, and voters voted overwhelmingly (98.31%) for independence. Papua New Guinea's National Vision 2050 was adopted in 2009. [47] According to UNICEF, nearly half of reported rape victims are under 15 years old, and 13% are under 7 years old. All ordinary statutes enacted by Parliament must be consistent with the Constitution. Australia is one continent. [103][104] Traditional religions are often animist. [33] There is evidence that New Guinea gardeners invented crop rotation well before western Europeans. New Guinea’s western half comprises the Indonesian provinces of Papua and West Papua and its eastern half comprises the major part of Papua New Guinea, an independent country since 1975. [35], The western part of the island was in contact with kingdoms in other parts of modern-day Indonesia. Coordinates: .mw-parser-output .geo-default,.mw-parser-output .geo-dms,.mw-parser-output .geo-dec{display:inline}.mw-parser-output .geo-nondefault,.mw-parser-output .geo-multi-punct{display:none}.mw-parser-output .longitude,.mw-parser-output .latitude{white-space:nowrap}6°S 147°E / 6°S 147°E / -6; 147, Papua New Guinea (PNG; /ˈpæp(j)uə ... ˈɡɪni, ˈpɑː-/, also US: /ˈpɑːpwə-, ˈpɑːpjə-, ˈpɑːpə-/;[11] Tok Pisin: Papua Niugini; Hiri Motu: Papua Niu Gini), officially the Independent State of Papua New Guinea (Tok Pisin: Independen Stet bilong Papua Niugini; Hiri Motu: Independen Stet bilong Papua Niu Gini), is a country in Oceania that occupies the eastern half of the island of New Guinea and its offshore islands in Melanesia, a region of the southwestern Pacific Ocean north of Australia. Coffee remains the major export crop (produced largely in the Highlands provinces); followed by cocoa and coconut oil/copra from the coastal areas, each largely produced by smallholders; tea, produced on estates; and rubber. Back bench members of parliament can also introduce bills. New Guinea (Tok Pisin: Niugini; Hiri Motu: Niu Gini; Indonesian: Papua, historically Irian) is the world's second-largest island and, with an area of 785,753 km (303,381 sq mi), the largest island wholly or partly within the Southern Hemisphere and Oceania. The western half, known as Western New Guinea or West Papua,[1] forms a part of Indonesia and is organized as the provinces of Papua and West Papua. Ethnologue's 14th edition lists 826 languages of Papua New Guinea and 257 languages of Western New Guinea, total 1073 languages, with 12 languages overlapping. Although it lies in the Papua region, Port Moresby has a highly diverse population which primarily uses Tok Pisin, and to a lesser extent English, with Motu spoken as the indigenous language in outlying villages. The term Papuan languages refers to an areal grouping, rather than a linguistic one, since so-called Papuan languages comprise hundreds of different languages, most of which are not related.[21]. Port Moresby is not linked by road to any of the other major towns, and many remote villages can only be reached by light aircraft or on foot. The island is presently populated by almost a thousand different tribal groups and a near-equivalent number of separate languages, which makes New Guinea the most linguistically diverse area in the world. With a vibrant and colourful Papua New Guinea culture, more than 600 islands and 800 indigenous languages, Papua New Guinea is made up of 4 regions with 20 provinces. The precise nature of the seisin varies from one culture to another. World Bank. New Guinea is part of the humid tropics, and many Indomalayan rainforest plants spread across the narrow straits from Asia, mixing together with the old Australian and Antarctic floras. There are four languages in Papua New Guinea with some statutory recognition: English, Tok Pisin, Hiri Motu,[96] and, since 2015, sign language (which in practice means Papua New Guinean Sign Language). The geography and economy of Papua New Guinea are the main factors behind the low percentage. In addition to two international airfields, Papua New Guinea has 578 airstrips, most of which are unpaved.[3]. [69] The maritime boundary with Australia was confirmed by a treaty in 1978. The programme resulted from the signing of an agreement in February 2014 between the European Union and the Pacific Islands Forum Secretariat. As the Indo-Australian Plate (which includes landmasses of India, Australia, and the Indian Ocean floor in between) drifts north, it collides with the Eurasian Plate. The northern lowlands are drained principally by the Mamberamo River and its tributaries on the western side, and by the Sepik on the eastern side. [90] They represent 0.25% of the total population of Papua New Guinea. In the 18th century, traders brought the sweet potato to New Guinea, where it was adopted and became a staple food. [citation needed] The Lands Act was amended in 2010 along with the Land Group Incorporation Act, intended to improve the management of state land, mechanisms for dispute resolution over land, and to enable customary landowners to be better able to access finance and possible partnerships over portions of their land, if they seek to develop it for urban or rural economic activities. On 25 February 2018, an earthquake of magnitude 7.5 and depth of 35 kilometres struck the middle of Papua New Guinea. During World War II, the New Guinea campaign (1942–1945) was one of the major military campaigns and conflicts between Japan and the Allies. The Land Element, a land force consisting of the Royal Pacific Islands Regiment, a small special forces unit, a battalion of engineers, and three other small units primarily dealing with signals and health, as well as a military academy, is concerned with defence of the nation on land. However, the Queensland government's superiors in the United Kingdom revoked the claim, and (formally) assumed direct responsibility in 1884, when Germany claimed north-eastern New Guinea as the protectorate of German New Guinea (also called Kaiser-Wilhelmsland). [14] These societies and clans are explicitly acknowledged by the Papua New Guinea Constitution, which expresses the wish for "traditional villages and communities to remain as viable units of Papua New Guinean society"[18] and protects their continuing importance to local and national community life. This terrain has made it difficult for the country to develop transportation infrastructure. [17] Most of the people still live in strong traditional social groups based on farming. The name is one of several toponyms sharing similar etymologies, ultimately meaning "land of the blacks" or similar meanings, in reference to the dark skin of the inhabitants. [38] During Tidore's rule, the main exports of the island during this period were resins, spices, slaves and the highly priced feathers of the bird-of-paradise. The under-5 mortality rate, per 1,000 births is 69 and the neonatal mortality as a percentage of under-5s' mortality is 37. Australia and New Guinea are portions of the ancient supercontinent of Gondwana, which started to break into smaller continents in the Cretaceous period, 65–130 million years ago. The constitution was drafted between 1973 and 1975 and established the country as a Commonwealth realm headed by The Crow… Although the rest of the Dutch East Indies achieved independence as Indonesia on 27 December 1949, the Netherlands regained control of western New Guinea. The autonomous Bougainville elected Joseph Kabui as president in 2005, who served until his death in 2008. Agriculture was independently developed in the New Guinea highlands around 7000 BC, making it one of the few areas in the world where people independently domesticated plants. [19] It is a full member of the Pacific Community, the Pacific Islands Forum,[20] and the Commonwealth of Nations.[21]. [citation needed] When first flown over by aircraft, numerous settlements with agricultural terraces and stockades were observed. The constitutional convention, which prepared the draft constitution, and Australia, the outgoing metropolitan power, had thought that Papua New Guinea would not remain a monarchy. 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